Factors influencing morphogenesis

Morphogenesis in culture occurs via a variety of routes. Two of them are important: organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Organogenesis encompasses both direct and indirect creation of adventitious shoots or roots. Embryogenesis also has two paths, the end of which differs in the form of "bipolar somatic embryos," which subsequently produce separate plantlets. Several elements have a significant impact on the phenomena of morphogenesis during culture. Genotypes, explants, growth regulators, nutrients, other additives, and the physical environment are all examples.


Certain plant groups appeared to respond more readily to culture than others in the plant kingdom. Carrot family (Umbelliferae) members are thought to be a group that can easily generate somatic embryos in culture. Differences in response were detected, however, across distinct species of a genus and cultivars within a species. It is now widely acknowledged that genetic variables influence the response of plant tissues in culture. Despite reports of plant species reluctance to culture, this difficulty can be successfully resolved by manipulating explants, culture medium, or culture environment.


Although all cells in a plant are totipotent, there are significant variances in their ability to regenerate plants from cell to cell and organ to organ within a plant. In general, embryonic, meristematic, and reproductive tissues appear to have more growth and morphogenesis potential in culture. Some types of organs in woody species can only be regenerated when embryos or immature inflorescences are cultured. The inoculum must be made up of actively dividing or juvenile cells. It is generally understood that the physiological stage of the mother plant, as well as its nutritional and environmental factors, would influence the explant for morphogenesis. So, even though certain fluctuations in endogenous rhythm are unavoidable, the mother plant should be grown in a well-controlled environment to obtain consistent outcomes.

Regulators of growth

The control of morphogenesis in the majority of cultures is known to be substantially a function of the exogenous auxin/cytokinin ratio. High amounts of kinetin promote shoot initiation, whereas high levels of auxin promote roots. Autin is essential for the induction of embryonic cells and the maintenance of proliferative development throughout somatic embryogenesis. Embryo production can be encouraged by moving the callus to a media with less auxin or a medium without auxin. Other than auxins and cytokinins, plant growth regulators have been demonstrated to play a significant role in the induction and control of morphogenesis. Gibberellic acid has been most successfully utilised to accelerate the growth of shoot apices and somatic embryos into plants.

nutrient-rich medium

Nutrient medium components serve key functions in determining morphogenesis in culture. Many inorganic and organic nutrients have been widely investigated. The supply and content of nitrogen are two of the most significant medium components in morphogenesis. High amounts of reduced nitrogen appear to be favourable for shoot development and necessary for somatic embryogenesis. This is provided in the form of ammonium nitrate and is sometimes substituted with amino acids and their amides such as mglutamine, glycine, and alanine. The presence of potassium in the medium speeds up embryogenesis.

Additional ingredients

In vitro morphogenesis is also aided by the addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut milk to the medium. Coconut milk has been widely used as a medium component in somatic embryogenesis.

The cultural environment

Other parameters that may play a role in organogenesis and embryogenesis include temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and osmotic concentration. The ideal temperature for culture is 24.2oC. The ability of explants to regenerate is enhanced when they are treated at low temperatures prior to culture. Light has a strong morphogenetic effect on plants grown in culture. Normally, cultures generate shoots, but the illumination period should be maintained in accordance with the photoperiodism of the natural environment. Blue light encourages shoot production, while red light stimulates rooting. Carrot somatic embryos became plants in the light; in the absence of light, etiolation happened. The overall osmotic concentration of a medium can also have a significant impact on morphogenesis. Increased osmotic levels in the medium promote the development of shoots and somatic embryos. By adding more sucrose, the osmotic level can be raised.

morphogenetic incapacity

In vitro cultures with morphogenetic potential first lose the ability if subcultured frequently. Changes at the genetic, epigenetic, and physiological levels may result from such subcultures. The most common genetical change is a change in the ploidy level of cultured cells. These variants can be polyploidy or aneuoploidy. Gene mutations can occur in cultured cells as well.


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