BIOFERTILIZER

What is biofertilizer?

Biofertilizers are the microbial concoction that aids with plant growth by improving the plant's nutrient supply. The mix includes bacteria, blue-green algae, and mycorrhizal fungi. Both mycorrhizal fungi and cyanobacteria prefer to remove minerals from organic matter for the plant.

The process of turning di-nitrogen molecules into nitrogen compounds is defined as nitrogen fixation. An example is the conversion of insoluble phosphorus to soluble phosphorus by bacteria. Phosphorus is made available to plants because of this.



There are various kinds of biofertilizers.


The following types of biofertilizers are important:


Nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria


Rhizobium is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that is critical to soil fertility. Bacteria come to plant-life to find shelter and acquire sustenance. Instead, they are helpful by feeding plants with fixed nitrogen.


nitrogen-fixing bacteria association


Azospirillum is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are found in the root systems of higher plants but do not have a close connection with the plants. Because of this bacteria's interaction with plant exudate, it is commonly referred to as rhizosphere association. This type of mutually beneficial interaction is known as associative mutualism.


Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.


Blue-Green algae or Cyanobacteria that develops as a result of a symbiotic relationship with many plants. Some of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria include liverworts, cycad roots, ferns, and lichens. Anabaena can be found in the fern's leaf cavities. Nitrogen fixation is carried by by it. The fern plants decompose and contribute to the plant's use. Azolla pinnate lives in rice fields, but the field owners do not control how much the plant grows.


These free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria


The nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are free-living and can be found in the soil. Saprophytic anaerobes, such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Azotobacter, etc., grow in soil and convert it into energy.


Rhizobium and Azospirillum are the most extensively utilised forms of biofertilizers.


The three main components of biofertilizers


To create biofertilizers, you will use the following components:


Bio-Fertilizer


This environmentally beneficial product is made from the organic waste material generated by sugar-producing facilities that are then degraded. It has human-friendly bacteria, fungi, and other plants, which makes it amplified.


Tricho-Card


This nonpathogenic and eco-friendly supplement is utilised in several crops, including sugar cane, paddy apple, brinjal, corn, cotton, and various vegetables. This pesticide is both a useful pesticide and an enemy to bore, shoot, fruit, and leaf eaters.


Azotobacter


It keeps pathogens out of the soil and does a good job of keeping the nitrogen in the air. About 78% of the overall atmosphere is made up of nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for the plant.


Phosphorus


Plants rely on phosphorus for their own growth and development. Microorganisms that solubilize phosphorus compounds, hydrolyzing insoluble compounds to the soluble form, are used to increase phosphate uptake by plants. The fungus and bacteria listed above are often utilised for a variety of purposes such as producing antibiotics, flavourings, fragrances, or enzymes.


Vermicompost


This organic fertiliser is environmentally benign and made up of vitamins, hormones, organic carbon, sulphur, antibiotics, which aid in increasing yield as well as quality. A fast remedy to increase soil fertility is using vermicompost.


Biofertilizers are essential


A good biofertilizer can fulfil several vital functions.


Using biofertilizers improved the texture and yields of plants grown in the soil.


They prevent germs from proliferating.


They are environmentally friendly and economical.


Because they are natural fertilisers, biofertilizers help to safeguard the environment from contaminants.


They are able to break down numerous dangerous compounds that are found in the soil, such as plant pathogens.


The results of research clearly show that biofertilizers are successful even in semi-arid regions.


Biofertilizers applications


Because of their many applications, biofertilizers are quite significant.


root-fungus root dip


This is a technique that works well on rice crops. Seedlings are planted in the water in the bed for approximately eight to ten hours.


insecticide


Seeds are covered in a mixture of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisers, and are then sprinkled with the other nutrients. As quickly as possible, these seeds are dried and sowed.


soil remediation


Following one night of mixed fertilisation, the biofertilizers along with the compost fertilisers are combined and held for around two weeks. After that, the earth is coated with this mixture where the seeds are to be planted. 

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