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Showing posts from May, 2021

ANTIBODIES

Antibodies , also known as immunoglobulins, are Y-shaped glycoproteins formed by plasma cells, which are differentiated B-cells. They are found on the surface of B-cells, in body fluids, secretions. Anticorps recognize and bind to special epitopes which are the surface of their cognate antigens with molecular structures. The structure, function, groups and clinical significance of antibodies will be considered in this article. STRUCTURE Light heavy chains Two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains consist of antibody molecules which therefore give an antibody two antigen-binding locations. Disulphide links connection between heavy chains and light chains . Moreover, the heavy and light chains include multiple sequences of amino acids, each corresponding to a protein domain. Protein domain is an antibody feature and corresponds to a discreet, folded protein structure region. Protein domain. Consequently, they are important in the development of antibody systems (see '

DNA REPLICATION

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 DNA REPLICATION DNA REPLICATION The dividing cell is an essential operation. This is important. The structure of DNA, the exact steps involved in replicating DNA (initiation, elongation and termination) and the clinical implications that may arise when that goes wrong are briefly discussed in this Article. The structure of DNA, the exact steps involved in replicating DNA (initiation, elongation and termination) and the clinical implications that may arise when that goes wrong are briefly discussed in this Article. Structure of DNA Millions of nucleotides are composite of DNA. These are molecules consisting of deoxyribose sugar, which is bound to a phosphate, a basis (or nucleobase). These nucleotides are joined in strands in order to form a 'sugar phosphate backbone' by phosphodiesters. The bond is formed between the third carbon atom in one nucleotide's desoxyribose sugar (the 3') and the fifth carbon atom of the next sugar (the 5'). In opposite or antiparallel di

PHOTORESPIRATION

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  INTRODUCTION TO PHOTORESPIRATION Earlier the rate of breathing in the light was thought to have been almost the same as breathing in the dark. Light affects breathing and the light rate about 3 to 5 times more than breath in darkness, recently it has been found. This led to photorespiration being discovered. The C2 cycle is also known. Decker first showed in the years 1955 and 1959 the presence of photorespiration. He was the first to use the expression photorespiration for his colleagues. Photorespiration in plants in the presence of light requires loss of fixed carbon as CO2. Chloroplasts are initiated. This is not a wasteful operation that produces either ATP or NADPH. Photorespiration normally occurs when the level of oxygen is high. RuBisCO, the enzyme which catalyses RuBP carboxylation in the first phase of the Calvin cycle, acts as oxygenase under these circumstances. Any O2 binds to RuBisCO and thus reduces CO2 fixation. In the direction of photorespiration, RuBP binds with O

SOUTHERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE

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 SOUTHERN BLOT The southern blot is a way of verifying that a DNA sequense is present in a sample of DNA. This system is named by the British biologist Edwin Southern, its inventor. As detailed below is the protocol for the Southern blot technique: · RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES are used to decrease the high molecular DNA strands into smaller pieces, which are then electrophored on an agarose gel to distinguish them by dimension. · If the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb, the acid, such as diluted hCl which purines the DNA fragments can be handled before blotting, breaking the DNA into the smaller pieces so that the gel can be transferred more efficiently from a gel to a membrane. · The DNA is put in an alkaline solution with (NaOH) to denature the double-stranded DNA when alkaline transference methods are used. Denaturation in an alkaline environment may boost the binding of the loading negatively of the DNA with a positively loaded membrane and separate it into one DNA strand for sub

VERNALIZATION IN PLANTS

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 VERNALIZATION  Lysenko (1928), a Russian worker, found that colds that require annual and biennial crops can flourish during one season by treating young plants or damp seeds at low temperatures.  He called vernalization of the effects of this refreshing procedure. Vernalization is thus a period of shortening the youth or vegetative stage and of the rush to bloom by cool past therapy.  For a few days to a half month, some plants anticipate low temperatures of 0 to 10°C for blooming. This acceptance of low temperature flowering is called vernalization PLACE TO VERNALIZATION  · Vernalisation increase can only be seen by meristematic cells (active apical meristem). Top of the fire, tip of the birth organism, root summit, leaves    VERNALIZATION  Necessities I Low temperature: usually 0°—5° is low temperature necessary to vernalize. (ii) Treatment period: from a few hours up to a few days it fluctuates. (iii) Cells that are involved in dividing: (iv) Water: Water: (v) Respiration from A

BIOTRANSFORMATION

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 Introduction Catalyzed by cells, organs, or enzymes, Biotransformation is a chemical reaction. It is a cycle in which the realistic collection of natural mixtures is transformed into an extraordinary synthetic element by living cells. It examines the extraordinary characteristics of bio-catalysts, especially their particularity and ability to respond to sound systems without an unbelievable pH value and temperature. It can very well be used to make explicit changes to complex mediums using cleaned cells, plant, living organism, or microbial cells as stimuli. Biotransformation can lead to the development of metabolites, fine synthetics and the drug using natural stimuli. Biotransformation factors: For example, Biotransformation is based on different variables such as physiological, biochemical and cell culture ecological conditions. •Plant tissue origin origin • Media Culture •Controllers for growth •The medium carbon source • Temperature • Temperature •PH: •PH • Force of light Biotran

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

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 Which is PCR PCR is a way of making a great number of duplicates in a particular section of the DNA used in the laboratory. It developed in the 80ies for the first time. —Initially, in 1983, the American natural chemist Kary Mullis developed the polymerase chain response (PCR). For his work as a specialist, he was awarded the Chemistry Nobel Prize in 1993. PCR is used for multiple duplicates of (enhancing) small areas of DNA in sub-atomic chemistry. Using PCR, thousands or large numbers of duplicates of a particular area of DNA can be generated using a limited amount of DNA. The PCR is a common device used in clinical and natural examination laboratories. It is used in the initial phases of DNA sewage preparation, for acknowledging the proximity or inaccuracy of a quality to help to differentiate microbes from small examples of DNA during contamination and for the production of scientific DNA profiles. IT evolved in the 1980s for the first time. How's PCR works? · The criteria of

CLONING OF GENES

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 An organ, single cell, organelle or macromolecule is precisely a clone of a type of life. Cloning of consistency is the evidence of producing solo duplicates. Subatomic cloning refers to the way a characterised DNA structure is detached and a number of duplicates in vivo are obtained. Cloning is often used to enhance the quality of DNA parts but it can be used to improve any DNA system such as marketers, non-coding successions, coordinated synthesis of oligonucleotides or arbitrary divide. Cloning is utilised to create enormous protein for a broad spectrum of organic exams and creative applications. It is used in various exploratory areas for, for example, quality treatment in clinical applications. The ability to implement the corresponding fundamental structures is the basis for the special intensification of qualities. 1. Enlargement of the particular gene  The revelation of thermographical DNA polymerases, such as taq polymerase, allowed the DNA replication to be controlled in the

PLANT DNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL

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INTRODUCTION For high-quality extractions of DNA, plant materials are among the toughest. The key is to make the tissues suitable for removal. Overall, the fluid nitrogen streak freezes, and the solidified tissue is subsequently crushed by a mortar and pestle. Liquid nitrogen is difficult to handle and in open conditions such as a studies hall, it is dangerous. Therefore we have adapted to the use of new tissue an incredibly simple plant DNA extraction convention. We have used fabric arranged in advance by drying. Here are the conventions and performance. Protocol of extraction 1. Weight 0.3 g of tissue of the plant 2. Spot fabric on a fine slide glass. Hit the tissue in glue with an incredibly sharp single rim. 3. Transfer tissue quickly to the narrow tube of a 1.5 ml axis () and (discretionary) to the further cylindrical crush tissue 4. Provide 300 μL EBA, 900μl EBB and 100 μl SDS when the example has been ready. 5. 65o C for 10 min. vortex and brood. 6. Ice spot tube and 410 μL of a