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BIOFERTILIZER

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What is biofertilizer? Biofertilizers are the microbial concoction that aids with plant growth by improving the plant's nutrient supply. The mix includes bacteria, blue-green algae, and mycorrhizal fungi. Both mycorrhizal fungi and cyanobacteria prefer to remove minerals from organic matter for the plant. The process of turning di-nitrogen molecules into nitrogen compounds is defined as nitrogen fixation. An example is the conversion of insoluble phosphorus to soluble phosphorus by bacteria. Phosphorus is made available to plants because of this. There are various kinds of biofertilizers. The following types of biofertilizers are important: Nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that is critical to soil fertility. Bacteria come to plant-life to find shelter and acquire sustenance. Instead, they are helpful by feeding plants with fixed nitrogen. nitrogen-fixing bacteria association Azospirillum is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are foun

PLANT TRANSFORMATION

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 TRANSFORMATION OF PLANT Tissue culture of plants Plant transformation is often accomplished by inserting plasmid constructions or fragments of plasmid constructs into the genome of a plant cell. It is not easy to regrow entire transgenic plants from changed cells. Many plant cells are totipotent, which means they can regenerate an entire plant from a single cell. Tissue culture, on the other hand, is time-consuming, labor-intensive, necessitates specialised skills, and has the potential to trigger DNA changes within plant cells. Plant tissue culture systems in some crops, such as soybean and sunflower, are extremely difficult. Plant-transformation technologies based on tissue culture have mostly been used to develop commercial GM crops. Transformation technologies that are commonly used The first plants were transformed utilising Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the mid-1980s. This approach takes advantage of the crown gall disease-causing agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens'

Biochemistry- importance and scope

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 Biochemistry: An Overview and Definition The most noticeable feature of live life forms is that they are confused and intricately composed. They are generated by cells that have a mind-boggling inner structure that has a variety of sophisticated atom and substance responses. The term "BIOCHEMISTRY" is derived from a combination of biology and chemistry. In the foreword to the main issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry) in 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term (biochemie in German) as an equivalent word for physiological science, arguing for the establishment of foundations devoted to this field of study. Biochemistry's History Some believed that the discovery of the primary compound, diastase (now known as amylase), by Anselme Payen in 1833 was the beginning of biochemistry, while others believed that Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a complex biochemical cycle alcoholic ageing in sans cell extricates in 1897 was t

VECTORS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

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 Cloning Vector:  One can make unlimited measures of a certain part of DNA by cloning. The separated and sliced parts of DNA are essentially transferred to a host cell, generally a bacteria, such Esherichia coli, where the cell develops and partitions. On the other hand, they are duplicated. In any event, replication can occur if the DNA has a grouping that is interpreted as the beginning of the replication by the cell. Because these configurations are inconsistent, it is necessary to connect DNA to a conveyor or vector DNA that contains a source of replication once in a while and so the DNA to be cloned. Ideal Vector Standards: Vectors are the DNA atoms that are incorporated into it to transmit an unfamiliar DNA piece. A vector must be able to interchange, maintain and improve passenger DNA effectively through a basic capability. 1. The vector should be small and easy to break apart. 2. At least one replicative root should be in place to keep them in the host cell constantly. 3. At le

DNA REPLICATION PROCESS

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 INTRODUCTION DNA is the genetic substance that gives each cell its unique characteristics. Before a cell replicates and divides into new young girl cells via mitosis or meiosis, biomolecules and organelles must be copied in order to be appropriated among the cells. The DNA located inside the core must be imitated in order to ensure that each new cell has the correct amount of chromosomes. DNA replication is the process of duplicating DNA. Replication occurs in several stages, each of which includes various proteins known as replication chemicals and RNA. DNA replication occurs in eukaryotic cells, such as creature cells and plant cells, during the S phase of interphase during the phone cycle. DNA replication is required for cell formation, repair, and multiplication in living creatures. PROCESS OF REPLICATION Stage 1: Formation of Replication Forks The twofold abandoned particle must be "unfastened" into two single strands before DNA may be copied. The four nucleotides that

MORPHOGENESIS

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Factors influencing morphogenesis Morphogenesis in culture occurs via a variety of routes. Two of them are important: organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Organogenesis encompasses both direct and indirect creation of adventitious shoots or roots. Embryogenesis also has two paths, the end of which differs in the form of "bipolar somatic embryos," which subsequently produce separate plantlets. Several elements have a significant impact on the phenomena of morphogenesis during culture. Genotypes, explants, growth regulators, nutrients, other additives, and the physical environment are all examples. Genotype Certain plant groups appeared to respond more readily to culture than others in the plant kingdom. Carrot family (Umbelliferae) members are thought to be a group that can easily generate somatic embryos in culture. Differences in response were detected, however, across distinct species of a genus and cultivars within a species. It is now widely acknowledged that genetic

Southern Blotting

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SOUTHERN BLOTTING A Southern blot is a technique for detecting the presence of a DNA sequence in a DNA sample. Edwin Southern, a British scientist, is credited with inventing the approach. The Southern blot technique is described in full below: • Restriction endonucleases are used to cut high-molecular-weight DNA strands into smaller fragments, which are then separated by size on an agarose gel. • If the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute HCl, prior to blotting, which depurinates the DNA fragments, breaking the DNA into smaller pieces, allowing more ef • When using alkaline transfer methods, the DNA gel is immersed in an alkaline solution (including NaOH) to denature the double-stranded DNA. Denaturation in an alkaline environment may increase negatively charged DNA binding to a positively charged membrane, splitting it into single DNA strands for later hybridization to the probe, and eliminates any residual RNA that may still be pr